Proposed “Good Neighbor” Plan – Ozone – NOx Emissions: 25-state Revised CSAPR Trading Program Rule

Feb 28, 2022 EPA – The proposed rule includes NOx emission standards for certain emissions units in identified large industries in 23 states, with an initial compliance date of 2026.  On its list, EPA is proposing new emissions standards for certain new and existing emissions units, including: “High-emitting, large boilers in basic chemical manufacturing, petroleum and coal products manufacturing, and pulp, paper and paperboard mills.”

CIBO 2022 Annual Meeting Sets the Stage for 2023

Assessing the past year and planning for 2023 is an exciting prospect for CIBO members. Our 44th Annual Meeting was held on November 15, 2022, giving members the opportunity to discuss plans to carry the organization into the immediate future.

In keeping with its mission of providing the best technical knowledge, education and advocacy to help members adapt to a sustainable energy future, CIBO focuses on two major areas. Environmental issues identified for 2023 include EPA Air Regulations at the Federal and State levels, EPA water issues, tax incentives for industrial manufacturing sectors, and climate and clean energy policies. The other focus area is Energy and Sustainability, including DOE programs & energy markets, facility energy, and boiler operations. These topics form the basis for planning CIBO communications and conferences for 2023.

To accommodate our focus for 2023, CIBO has tailored an exciting series of meetings and conferences that include three in-person and three virtual events. Highlighting the season is our new conferences on Policies & Technical Issues to take place on May 15-17 and August 2-3.  Three committee meetings will continue to focus on environmental – regulatory compliance and energy sustainability challenges. The 45th Annual Meeting next October will allow us to re-focus and plan for 2024.

A top CIBO priority will be to recruit new members and retain existing members. CIBO offers strong benefits to organizations to help them navigate within the complex and challenging environment of America’s industrial energy. Our new website, launched in January 2023, is designed to engage interested stakeholders and communicate relevant information. Recruiting new members brings fresh ideas and experiences into the membership experience. Enhancing the value of CIBO to all members will help assert CIBO as a key voice for industrial, commercial and industrial energy users.

Congratulations Bob Morrow of Detroit Stoker Company, Recipient of the 2022 CIBO Flame Award

November 15, 2022

This award is annually presented to a CIBO member who best demonstrates the finest technical knowledge, a willingness and ability to educate our members, and an individual who maintains the highest standards and principles of CIBO as a champion of sustainable energy. This award also recognizes members who step up/volunteer their time and talents to the internal work CIBO does – in this case the Environmental Committee!

This award is called the CIBO FLAME AWARD. Fire consumes, warms, and illuminates, it is often the symbol of inspiration. The recipient of the CIBO Flame reflects this as the person who best represents our mission of ensuring reliable, sustainable, safe, and cost-effective energy to support a strong and globally competitive economy.

This year’s recipient is Mr. Bob Morrow. Bob has been a participating member of CIBO since 2007. He has had a long career with The Detroit Stoker Company. Bob serves as CIBO’s Environmental Committee Chairman. Bob’s technical acumen, enthusiasm in sharing his knowledge, and his exceptionally high standards make him the ideal recipient for our 2nd Annual CIBO FLAME AWARD.

Please join me in congratulating the 2022 CIBO FLAME AWARD winner Mr. Bob Morrow.

Alex Stoddard
Executive Director

Now Available Boiler Operator’s Handbook, Third Edition  By Carl Bozzuto

Now Available – River Publishers Series in Energy Engineering and Systems
Boiler Operator’s Handbook, Third Edition  By Carl Bozzuto

With the increased interest in climate impacts, sustainability, and efficiency more responsibility is being place on boiler operators to help improve
performance and reduce emissions. This 3rd edition of the Boiler Operators Handbook is intended to help such operators in the quest for improved
operability and performance of their boilers and their plants. The theme of this book is to “operate wisely”. The goal is to instill not only “know how” but
“know why”. The main details have been provided by the original author, Mr. Ken Heselton. This updated version has been somewhat expanded to
include a wider range of examples and some of the more recent environmental requirements.

To illustrate these points, topics include multi boiler operations, understanding the plant load, maintenance issues, and controls. Every plant is different.
However, it is hoped that with the information provided in this book, the wise operator will be able to address the various unique issues posed by the
specific plant and provide time solutions to meet the present day requirements.

Decarbonizing Industrial Steam & Power with Chemical Looping and Oxygen Combustion Technologies

Green energy can be thought of as renewable power, energy storage, synthetic fuels (particularly sustainable aircraft fuels), and industrial steam/heat. The energy transition involves a number of technologies, but particularly carbon capture. The first question is whether sequestration is available. If not, renewable fuels and energy will be the primary path. If sequestration is available, carbon capture will likely be deployed. Renewable fuels include green hydrogen, biomass, biowaste, and renewable natural gas.

The EU does not allow growing a crop to convert to fuel. In the EU, there is a waste hierarchy which leads to energy recovery after reduce, reuse, and recycle. For a boiler, the most straight forward approach is to substitute hydrogen for natural gas. The DOE target is $1/Kg hydrogen. That translates to about $ 7/MMBTU. However, transportation and delivery of hydrogen is difficult. Delivered cost can be much higher. Some hydrogen will be made from grid power, but currently grid power is more carbon intensive than natural gas. Methanol may turn out to be a better solution for transportation fuels. Low cost solar or wind is usually “behind the fence”. However, they are still intermittent. Distribution is still a significant cost. To get “green steam”, an electric boiler driven by renewables could be applied. Intermittency is still a problem. Heat pumps can also be applied, but that doesn’t change the intermittency problem. Thermal storage can smooth out the problem. B&W is using sand as the storage medium. With carbon sequestration available, carbon capture technologies become applicable. There will likely be a capture business, a transportation business, and a sequestration business.

For capture, there is post combustion capture (amine scrubbing), oxygen firing, and fuel processing. Amine scrubbing is essentially commercial (although the largest unit is around 100 MW). Oxygen firing has been demonstrated. However, the boiler must be essentially leak proof. A package oxyfired boiler is already slightly pressurized, so leakage is not as much of a problem. Electric power can be generated to drive a small ASU as well as the CO2 compression station. The usual fuel can be used and the CO2 sequestered. Finally, B&W is developing a chemical looping system called BrightLoop. The system consists of three vessels. The lower vessel is a fluid bed with a solid particle that is an oxygen carrier. Air is introduced in which the particle absorbs oxygen. The depleted air exhausts. The particles are separated and sent to a moving bed. The particles transport to a higher vessel where fuel is introduced. The fuel takes the oxygen from the particle and produces a relatively pure stream of CO2. The CO2 can be sequestered. The system can also be operated to produce hydrogen. A pilot plant was built at the DOE/Southern Co test center combined with KBR on the gasification side. A 15 ton/day hydrogen plant is planned. The oxygen carrier is an iron oxide particle engineered to operate between two oxidation states of iron. There are other substances added to help control the oxygen uptake and oxygen pickup by the fuel.

– Brian Higgins, The Babcock and Wilcox Company

Congressional GOP Perspective and Plans for 2023

The Republican policy task force on climate in the US House prepares for a potential Republican majority following the November elections. The goal is to have a plan ready.

Major themes include energy and environment, energy independence, lower costs, faster permitting, cleaner, and American produced. The US is the most efficient producer in the world. A product produced in China generates three times the emissions as the same product produced in the US. The US has reduced more GHG emissions since 2005 than the next five reducers in the world. A similar analysis applies to natural gas that comes from Russia compared to US natural gas. If lower GHG emissions are desired, production in the US should be optimized. That also means removal of obstacles to US production. Permitting should be made easier. American resources should be unlocked to provide security at home as well as abroad. Reliance on China needs to be reduced. China controls 90% of rare earth minerals needed for renewable energy systems. Replacing OPEC with China is not the way to solve our energy problems. Yet opening a new mine in the US is nearly impossible. Innovation will be critical to reducing costs (and thus emissions). That also requires changes to the permitting system. This will be required across the board. We need to beat Russia and China. We need to make ourselves more competitive. Conservation technologies are also needed (for example in farming and forest management). Finally, a more resilient society is needed. Spending money on mitigation prior to a disaster will pay in reduced cost and resiliency going forward.

  • Marty Hall, Citizens for Responsible Energy Solutions (CRES)

High Temperature Heat – New Technology Overview

Off-peak power from renewables in SPP causes the wholesale price of electricity to go to zero or less (with incentives). In that area, the incentives drive the generation of power when it is not necessarily needed. However, this generation is intermittent. Effective and reliable storage of such energy in the form of heat can provide reliable heat for industrial use. The Antora process uses resistance heating of carbon blocks to drive up the temperature of the blocks. The blocks then radiate heat to the desired process. Carbon blocks are used because they can be heated to high temperatures in a stable manner. They are generally low in cost and highly scalable with an existing supply chain. The material has a high thermal conductivity and a high specific heat. The technology has been used in graphitization furnaces for many years. The use of radiation to move the heat allows large quantities of heat without circulating a fluid through the system. The system is modular. Shutters can be used to modulate the amount of energy being delivered to an industrial process. A pilot system is currently deployed at a site in California. The system is a 5 Mwhr storage system, intended as the foundation for a single module. Success of this system would allow industrial thermal heat to be supplied by renewable electric power.

– David Bierman, Antora Energy

DOE – Renewable Energy Guidance Report

There are a number changes going on with the Advanced Manufacturing Office. The AMO will split into two offices for assistance in October 2022: Industrial Efficiency and Decarbonization and Advanced Materials and Technologies. The Industrial Decarbonization Roadmap focuses on the 5 sectors that account for the majority of industrial GHG emissions (chemicals, iron and steel, refining, food & beverage, and cement). There is no silver bullet. Multiple solutions are needed, as well as process integration. A current funding opportunity announcement is out under a $104 million funding effort. Proposals are due in December. The AMO has a number of institutes and is now setting up a 7th institute on industrial electrification.

The DOE has a Better Climate Challenge that aspires to reduce GHG emissions by over 50% in 10 years. A renewable guidance document for industry includes a summary document and a detailed supplemental document. Energy efficiency underpins the major resource for these efforts. Reducing energy needs also reduces the requirements for the remaining equipment and processes (including renewables and storage). The CHP program will be expanded to include all types of onsite energy. There is also an Industrial Technology Validation program. Phase 3 of that program is coming soon. The Infrastructure Law has provisions for providing grants and aid to smaller businesses for GHG reductions. There is also a state manufacturing leadership program. There are several manufacturing related provisions in the Inflation Reduction Act.

– Anne Hampson, DOE

University of Cincinnati Campus Energy Update

The University of Cincinnati campus covers nearly 8 million ft2. The campus is landlocked and in the middle of a built up urban area. It is subject to EJ considerations.

The Central Utility plant was constructed in 1993 to house the combined cycle plants, which allowed the shutdown of coal units. There are two gas turbines that feed HRSGs, which feed a steam turbine for power generation. There are 4 gas/oil fired boilers to provide steam, as well as backup diesel generators for summer use. The university has committed to 50% carbon reduction by 2035 and carbon neutrality by 2075. There is a climate action plan, but limited accountability in terms of reaching those goals. Implementing ideas to achieve these goals is a major challenge.

The combined cycle plant, installed in 2003, has generated renewable energy credits. An underground chilled water plant was installed in 2008. One of the peaking generators can use biodiesel. The two coal fired boilers were converted to wood pellets. However, problems with the feed systems and fuel supply led to the shutdown of these units. Chilled water systems are being upgraded with smart, multi compressor systems. Some green power is purchased from the utility. Wind power is the primary source. A real time data system is being installed to provide complete system data to identify potential opportunities for energy savings. A 1.5 Mw solar array is planned. Biodiesel blending is considered when oil firing (backup fuel) is needed. Hydrogen blending with natural gas is being considered for the gas turbines. Hydrogen supply is currently an issue. The PEMS system would have to be modified for such blends. Small modular nuclear reactors are being studied. The “nuclear battery” concept appears to be more attractive (shop assembled, 10 year life, plug and play). These units might be a long term solution.

– Sheri Bussard, University of Cincinnati

Cornell Campus Energy Update

The Cornell campus is pushing 15 million ft2 in upstate New York. The power plant supplies steam for heat, plus electric power and water services. Peak load is 35 Mw. Energy conservation activities improved overall efficiency which reduced carbon emissions. Two gas turbines with HRSGs provide cogeneration and allowed for the shutdown of the two coal boilers. Pressure from the student community, the state, the faculty, and eNGOs drove the elimination of the coal units.

The university adopted the Paris Accords. There are state regulations that will impact the university. Building codes may require renewable energy credits. The state is pushing for all buildings to be electric. The university has a Climate Action Plan which calls for carbon neutrality by 2035. Renewable energy use is only a part of the plan. One approach is earth source heat (like geothermal). The alternative is ground-sourced heat pumps. Nuclear power is another option. The last alternative is carbon credits. Solar PV and wind power can be deployed for electricity supply. Earth source heating involves drilling down about 10,000 ft to where the temperature can support heating water to 190 F. That hot water is brought to the surface for use as building heat. A test well has been drilled. Hot water has been verified. There were no seismic or fracture issues. The university promotes community involvement. Of course, this approach requires a shift from steam distribution to hot water distribution. Backup and emergency power and heat need to be evaluated. Energy conservation programs will continue. The university would like to be able to generate some carbon offsets.

 – Cheryl Ann Brown, Cornell University